A self-cleaning biological filter: How appendicularians mechanically control particle adhesion and removal

Appendicularians are ubiquitous marine grazers that use tangential filtration to collect micron and submicron prey. The food-concentrating filter (FCF) is the primary determinant of appendicularian prey selectivity, but the precise means by which it concentrates and conveys particles to the pharyngeal filter remain poorly understood.

Analysis of stress factors associated with KHV reactivation and pathological effects from KHV reactivation

Koi herpesvirus (KHV) is a highly pathogenic virus of common carp and koi. KHV becomes latent in recovered koi or exposed koi without symptoms, and the latent infection can reactivate under stress conditions. KHV reactivation from latency often occurs when water temperature rapidly rises above 17 °C. Dissolved O2 is lower at ≥17 °C than at non-stress temperatures ≤15 °C.

Best practices for assessing forage fish fisheries-​seabird resource competition

Worldwide, in recent years capture fisheries targeting lower-trophic level forage fish and euphausiid crustaceans have been substantial (~20 million metric tons [MT] annually). Landings of forage species are projected to increase in the future, and this harvest may affect marine ecosystems and predator-prey interactions by removal or redistribution of biomass central to pelagic food webs.