HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY
HACCP PLAN

Kenneth S. Hilderbrand Jr.
OSU Sea Grant Extension Program
Revised 12/30/97


1. Introduction 5. Process Schedule
2. Flow Diagram 6. Production Log
3. Hazard Analysis Worksheet 7. Temperature Recorder Verification Log
4. HACCP Plan 8. Drying Verification Log


1. Introduction:

1. Introduction: The information, tables, and other materials in this generic HACCP plan for Hot Smoked Fish represent only one possible way to write a HACCP plan. It should be used only for illustrative purposes. Each processor is obligated by law to write a flow diagram specific to their own facility and conduct a hazard analysis for their own processes and products. The primary purpose of this generic plan is to illustrate how a firm might simplify record keeping by writing a single plan, which could include several similar smoked fish products having different brining and smoking procedures.

According to law, certain HACCP functions must be performed by someone who has completed training equivalent to the HACCP Training Curriculum (publication UNC-SG-96-02) developed by The National Seafood HACCP Alliance for Training and Education. These functions include developing the plan, changing the plan, and conducting record review. This training may be obtained through classroom instruction or by equivalent on-the-job training. For details, see Sec. 123.10 of the regulations. This generic HACCP plan for hot smoked fish is based on the principles detailed in that manual and in guidance contained in the FDA's Fish & Fisheries Products Hazards & Controls Guide, First Edition, September 1996.

Seafood processors also should be aware that FDA's HACCP regulation (Procedures for the Safe and Sanitary Processing and Importing of Fish and Fishery Products; Final Rule, December 18, 1995) requires that they monitor and keep records on their sanitation procedures. This is best done by writing and implementing an SSOP (Sanitation Standard Operating Procedure). An example of this can be found on University of California's Web site <seafood.ucdavis.edu>.

For information on purchasing the Training Curriculum ($20), write or call: North Carolina Sea Grant, Box 8605, N.C. State University, Raleigh NC 27695-8605. Tel. 919 -515-2454. Advance payment is required.

For information on obtaining a free copy of FDA's Hazard & Controls Guide, contact: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Seafood, 200 C St. S.W., Washington, D.C. 20204. Tel. 202- 418-3133; fax 202-418-3196.2.

Return to Index


2. Flow Diagram

Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc.
Process Flow Diagram

RECEIVING
non-scombroid fish
|
|
RECEIVING
scombroid fish
|
|
RECEIVING
salt
|
|
Fish headed, gutted, frozen and glazed in 50 lb. boxes
---------- Salt on wood pallets into dry storage
 
FROZEN FISH STORAGE
|
|
|
|
On pallets in -10°F cold store until needed
|
THAWING
|
|
|
|
Partially thawed in mobile tubs with fresh flowing water at less than 70°F the day proceeding smoking operations
|
THAWED FISH STORAGE
|
|
|
|
In raw product cold room at 40°F or less in mobile tubs. Fish must be still partially frozen at time of butchering.
|
BUTCHERING
|
|
|
|
Remove sides manually leaving skin on. Cut into pieces for brining. Processing takes place in an air-conditioned area.
|
|
RINSING
|
|
|
BRINE
MAKEUP
|
|
Fish rinsed in fresh water at less than 70°F to remove debris
---------- Brine makeup in cold water and stored in raw product cold room (less than 40°F) until needed
|
BRINING
|
|
<     
In a specified strength of salt brine for a specified time. These are relatively strong brines and short times. (See note #1)
|
RINSING
|
  In fresh water at less than 70°F to remove surface brine
|
SMOKING/DRYING/COOKING/COOLING
(INTEGRATED STEPS)
|
To surface dry, apply smoke, dehydrate, cook, and cool enough to remove excess heat prior to final cooling. Product goes into cooler immediately upon removing from cooker.
|
COOLING (FINAL)
|
In a special unpackaged final product cooler at 38°F or less which is isolated from other raw or processed products.
|
PACKAGING/LABELING
|
In vacuum packages then into 20 lb. master cartons
|
STORAGE
|
In cartons on pallets in finished product cooler at 38°F or less.
|
SHIPPING
In refrigerated vans at 38°F or less (commercial carrier)

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3. Hazard Analysis Worksheet

Hot Smoked Fish Company Hazard-Analysis Worksheet

Firm Name: Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc. Product Description: Refrigerated, vacuum-packaged, cooked ready-to-eat smoked fish (no mercury-containing species used -- see note #2)
Firm Address: 123 Somewhere St., Anytown USA 97365 Method of Storage and Distribution: Stored and transported under refrigeration
  Intended Use and Consumer: ready to eat by general public without further cooking
(1)
Ingredient/processing step
(2)
Identify potential hazards, controlled or enhanced at the step (1)
(3)
Are any potential food safety hazards significant? (Y/N)
(4)
Justify your decisions for column 3.
(5)
What preventive measures can be applied to prevent the significant hazards?
(6)
Is this step a critical control point? (Y/N)
Receiving non-scombrotoxin forming fish BIOLOGICAL
pathogen inclusion
 
no
 
smoking/cooking step
 
 
 
NO
BIOLOGICAL
parasites
 
no
 
using frozen fish only
 
 
CHEMICAL
mercury
 
no
 
species
 
 
PHYSICAL
metal
 
no
 
using H&G fish only
 
 
Receiving scombrotoxin forming fish BIOLOGICAL
pathogen inclusion
 
no
 
smoking/cooking step
 
 
 
NO
BIOLOGICAL
parasites
 
no
 
using frozen fish only
 
 
BIOLOGICAL
histamine
 
no
 
secondary processor of frozen fish only
 
CHEMICAL
mercury
 
no
 
species
 
 
PHYSICAL
metal
 
no
 
using H&G fish only
 
 
Receiving salt BIOLOGICAL
none
 
 
 
using only canners grade salt
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Frozen fish storage BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
no
 
SOP uses security alarms and continuous surveillance
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
adulteration
 
no
 
packaged fish only
 
 
Thawing BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
no
 
partly thawed in cool water
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Thawed fish storage BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
no
 
cold temperatures and insufficient time with only partially thawed fish
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Butchering BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
no
 
cool temperatures and insufficient time
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rinsing BIOLOGICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brining (see Note #1) BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth during smoking and in final product
 
yes
 
human error in brine makeup and brining times are possible
 
sufficient brining
 
YES
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rinsing BIOLOGICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smoking/initial BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth on surface during smoking/drying/cooking
 
no
 
SOP for natural wood-smoke flavor and color is sufficient to inhibit growth of surface pathogens
 
 
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smoking/drying BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth in final product
 
yes
 
dehydration of brined fish must be sufficient to raise water phase salt in finished product to control C. botulinum if product is temperature abused
 
sufficient drying
 
YES
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Smoking/cooking BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth in final product
 
yes
 
cook time and temperature must be sufficient at to destroy pathogens preventing their growth in finished product if product is temperature abused
 
sufficient cooking
 
YES
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cooling BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth during cooling
 
yes
 
pathogens can grow if cooling period is too long
 
sufficient cooling
 
YES
BIOLOGICAL
cross contamination
 
no
 
controlled by SSOP
 
 
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Packaging/labeling BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth in temperature abused product
 
yes
 
temperature abuse by shippers, distributors, or consumers is possible and can cause pathogen growth if water phase salt is too low
 
proper labeling
 
YES
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Storage BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
yes
 
pathogens can grow in warm temperatures if water phase salt is too low
 
proper storage temperatures
 
YES
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
Shipping BIOLOGICAL
pathogen growth
 
yes
 
pathogens can grow in warm temperatures if water phase salt is too low
 
adequate warning labels on packages will control this hazard in previous step
 
NO
CHEMICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 
PHYSICAL
none
 
 
 
 
 
 

Return to Index


4. HACCP Plan

HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY HACCP PLAN

Firm Name: Hot Smoked Fish Company, Inc. Product Description: Refrigerated, vacuum-packaged, cooked, ready-to-eat, smoked fish (no mercury-containing species used - see Note #1)
Firm Address: 123 Somewhere St., Anytown USA 97365 Method of Storage and Distribution: Stored and transported under refrigeration
  Intended Use and Consumer: ready to eat by general public without further cooking
(1)
Critical Control Point (CCP)
(2)
Significant Hazards(s)
(3)
Critical Limits for each Preventive Measure
Monitoring (8)
Corrective Actions
(9)
Records
(10)
Verification
(4)
What
(5)
How
(6)
Frequency
(7)
Who
Brining (see note #1) pathogen growth during smoking and in final product minimum brine strength and times as per process schedule brine strength and time salometer and in/out time each brining batch (lot) operator rebrine or hold for evaluation production log daily record review
Smoking/ drying (see note #3) pathogen growth in final product minimum smoke-house cycle time as per process schedule in/out process times chart recorder each batch smoke-house operator reprocess or hold for evaluation production log and recorder charts daily record review
monthly wt. loss checks
annual wps/a w checks
Smoking/ cooking (see note #3) pathogen growth in final product minimum final cook time/center temp as per process schedule cook temperature and center temperature chart recorder each batch smoke-house operator reprocess or hold for evaluation production log and recorder charts daily record review, weekly recorder check
Cooling pathogen growth during cooling maximum cooler temperature cooling room temp chart recorder continuous operator hold for evaluation/ adjust cooler temp production log and temp recorder charts daily record review, weekly recorder check
Packaging/ labeling pathogen growth in temperature abused product all products labeled "keep at 38°F or less" packaging material visual each lot operator relabel production logs daily record reviews
Storage of finished product pathogen growth 38°F or less cold storage chart recorder continuous operator hold for evaluation/ adjust cold room temp production logs/ recorder charts weekly recorder check
Signature of Company Official: Date of Revision:

Note #1: This hazard analysis assumes short brining times in strong salt solutions. If long brining times in weak solutions are used, the hazard analysis should consider the possibility of a biological hazard (pathogen growth and/or histamine formation), resulting in a critical control point at this brining step.

If raw brined scombrotoxin fish are stored overnight in the raw fish cooler prior to smoking, then that storage step should be added to the flow sheet and Hazard Analysis Worksheet. The Hazard Analysis should list histamine formation as a significant biological hazard which can be controlled by refrigeration with a CCP at the raw brined fish storage step. The temperature recorder verification log should be changed to include the raw fish storage temperature recorder.

Note #2: Species known to have mercury are not included in this generic plan because the FDA's Hazard and Controls Guide does not cover this hazard (First Edition, September 1996, page 101). This should be resolved prior to Dec. 17, 1997.

Note #3: Brining, smoking, drying, cooking details for each species, size, and style of smoked fish are contained in the company process schedule.

Return to Index


5. Process Schedule

HOT SMOKED FISH CO. PROCESS SCHEDULE

(FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY)

OPERATING LIMITS (see note #4)

SPECIES SIZE
(maximum)
BRINING
(minimum)
SMOKING
(minimum)
COOKING
(minimum)
DRYING
(minimum)
  thick
(in)
len
(in)
width
(in)
stren. deg
(sal)
time
(hrs)
total process time
(hrs)
time
(min)
temp
(F)
weight loss
(%)
Chinook (lg)
Chinook (sm)
2
1
9
6
4
4
62
62
2:35
1:00
8
6
35
35
148
148
20
25
Chum Salmon 1 6 4 62 :50 6 35 148 30
Blackcod 1 1/2 5 4 62 1:30 6 35 148 15
Albacore 2 4 3 62 :45 6 35 148 15
Snapper 1 4 2 62 :20 5 35 148 20

CRITICAL LIMITS (see note #5)

SPECIES BRINING
(minimum)
SMOKING
(minimum)
COOKING (note #6)
(minimum)
  strength
(sal)
time
(hrs)
total process time
(hrs)
time
(min)
temperature (F)
Chinook (lg)
Chinook (sm)
60
60
2:20
:50
7:45
5:45
30
30
145
145
Chum Salmon 60 :45 5:45 30 145
Blackcod 60 1:20 5:45 30 145
Albacore 60 :40 5:45 30 145
Snapper 60 :15 4:45 30 145
signed: revision date:

Note #4: THIS PROCESS SCHEDULE IS FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. THE VALUES CONTAINED HERE ARE NOT SUBSTANTIATED BY RESEARCH OR FIELD EXPERIENCE. EACH PROCESSING FIRM MUST ESTABLISH AND VERIFY THEIR OWN PROCESSES. Operating limits are values intended to exceed CRITICAL LIMITS so that deviations from CRITICAL LIMITS will not occur. They are margins of safety.

Note #5: THE CRITICAL LIMITS SUGGESTED HERE ARE FOR ILLUSTRATIVE PURPOSES ONLY. AS WITH OPERATING LIMITS, EACH PROCESSOR MUST ESTABLISH AND VERIFY THEIR OWN CRITICAL LIMITS BY TESTING PROCEDURES AND CONDUCTING PRODUCT ANALYSIS. Information on smoked fish HACCP plans can be obtained from FDA's Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls Guide, First Edition, September 1996, Chapter 13 (Clostridium botulinum Toxin Formation) and Chapter 14 (Pathogen Growth and Toxin Formation as a Result of Inadequate Drying).

Note #6: Addition information on smoked fish critical limits can be found on the menus of University of California's Web SeafoodNIC site or specifically at :

seafood.ucdavis.edu/haccp/compendium/process/smoke.htm.

Return to Index


6. Production Log

HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY PRODUCTION LOG

  BRINING
Brine Strength (Sal)
(minimum)
Brining Time (hours)
(minimum)
lot # date
1997
species size operating limit critical limit actual SAL value operating limit critical limit time in (clock) time out (clock) actual brining time meets critical limit y/n
032797-1 3/27 Chinook lg 62 60 63 2:35 2:20 10:23 12:57 2:34 y
032797-2 3/27 chum   62 60 63 :50 :45 11:00 11:49 :49 y
                         
                         
                         
                         
Deviations: none Corrective Actions: none Operator initials:
Date:
CONTINUED FROM BRINING LOG ABOVE SMOKING/DRYING
total processing times
lot # date
1997
species size operating limit (hr.)
(minimum)
critical limit (hr.)
(minimum)
time in
(clock or recorder)
time out
(clock or recorder)
actual process time
(hr.)
meets critical limit?
(y/n)
032797-1 3/28 Chinook lg 8:00 7:45 7:30 15:29 7:59 y
032797-2 3/28 chum   6:00 5:45 8:00 14:01 6:01 y
                   
                   
                   
                   
Deviations: none Corrective Actions: none Operator initials:
Date:
CONTINUED FROM SMOKING/DRYING ABOVE COOKING TIME/TEMPERATURE (fish center temp)
control limit
minimum
critical limits (CL)
minimum
actual time/temp from recorder chart
File charts by date!
meets critical limit?
(Y/N)
out of cooker at (note #7) into cooler at:
(clock)
lot # date
1997
species size temp
(°F)
time
(min)
temp
(°F)
time
(min)
temp
(°F)
time above
CL
032797-1 3/28 Chinook lg 148 35 145 30 148 34 y 15:45 16:00
032797-2 3/28 chum   148 35 145 30 147 33 y 14:30 14:45
                         
                         
                         
                         
Deviations: none Corrective Actions: none Operator initials:
Date:
Reviewed by (signature): Date:

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7. Temperature Recorder Verification Log

HOT SMOKED FISH COMPANY TEMPERATURE VERIFICATION LOG

WEEKLY RECORDER CALIBRATION
Date
1997
Time Recorder Recorder Temp (°F) Actual temp (°F) Deviation from Actual Corrective Action ?
3/27 12:00 Smokehouse #1 125 127 -2 none
3/27 12:15 Smokehouse #2 140 138 +2 adjust down 2 degrees
3/27 2:30 Smoked Fish Cooler 35 35 0 none
3/27 2:40 Finished Product Cooler 38 37 +1 none
             
             
             
Operator Signature: Date:
Reviewer Signature: Date:

Return to Index


8. Drying Verification Log

DRYING VERIFICATION LOG

TRANSFER FROM PRODUCTION LOG WEIGHT LOSS FROM DRYING
(see note #1)
ANNUAL WPS and/or aw checks when taken (see Note #2)
date of testing lot # species size net wt in net wt out actual % loss operating limit
(%)
corrective action FDA
guideline
actual
value
corrective action
3/31/97 030397-3 Chinook lg           wps=3.5% 3.6% none
3/31/97 032797-2 chum   275 195 29 30 add 5 min to process schedule      
                       
                       
                       
                       
Signature of Operator: Date:
Signature of Reviewer: Date:

Note #7: Tests done in plant show that unpackaged smoked fish taken from the smokehouse at 145°F or less and placed in cooler at 38°F or less will cool to 50°F in less than 3 hours and to 38°F in less than 12 hours.

Note #8: Weight loss checks can be made for representative samples placed in the smoker rather than on the weight of the entire load.

Note #9: FDA guidelines allow either or both Water Phase Salt (WPS) and Water Activity (Aw) to be used to judge the adequacy of protection from growth of Clostridium botulinum in the finished product (smoked fish).

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