Th is chapter includes three sections: Lake Formation and Geology, Overview of the Great Lakes’ Physical Characteristics, and Great Lakes Water Chemistry.


The goal of this project is to provide a set of resources and examples of aquatic pesticide toxicity to NOAA Trust Species and BMPs to NOAA Fisheries Service agents and private and public resource managers.
Agricultural practices, including tillage, fertilization, and residue management, affects surface runoff, soil erosion, and nutrient cycling.
The impacts of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on Great Lakes ice cover were investigated.
This paper describes a project to model river basins as complex social-ecological systems.