Consultation is increasingly viewed as a critical factor in renewable energy development, including ocean energy (OE) development. Failure to consult the community and other stakeholders and failure to employ the appropriate methods for consultation will, in many instances, impact the successful development and implementation of the OE project. This chapter provides a consice summary of key issues related to the principles and practices of consultation, drawing on renewable energy scholarly literature and specifically OE literature. Key concepts such as "social license" and "social acceptance" are explored in more depth, as well as the role of consultation in mitigating conflict related to other uses of the marine environment. A series of three case studies drawn from European and North American contexts illustrate the complexity of consultation and its role as a critical tool and factor in supporting responsible OE development. The chapter concludes by summarizing key lesson and themes drawn from the literature and case studies for consideration for future practice and research.
Authors: Colton, John; Conway, Flaxen; Wiersma, Bouke; Carlson, Jordan; Devine-Wright, Patrick
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