Microplastics are pollutants of increasing concern. They are pervasive in the environment and can harbor or adsorb pollutants from surrounding waters. Aquatic organisms, including commercial species, encounter and ingest microplastics, but there is a scarcity of data about those caught and cultured in North America. Additional research is needed to determine the prevalence, physiological effects, and population-level implications of microplastics in commercial species from Canada, the United States and Mexico. Investigations into possible human health effects of microplastic exposure from seafood are also greatly needed. Researchers summarize the current knowledge, identify data gaps, and provide future research directions for addressing microplastics effects in commercially valuable North American fishery species.